Life Work/Research

Restore • Transform • Move


Dr Sarah Mottram is a clinician, mentor, educator, researcher and author with a PhD on Healthy Movement. She is passionate about helping people to move well and live their best life. She does that by enhancing the health of movement, across life spans and the activity spectrum.

Sarah has worked with elite sports men and women, active older people and those with pain, to improve their quality of life and participation. For more than 25 years Sarah has been exploring The Health of Movement. Four key elements have led to the development of her philosophy and practice:

    • Clinical Experience
    • Research Activities
    • Movement Methods
    • Educational and Technologcal Innovations

Clinical Experience

Sarah places movement at the heart of her clinical practice.Throughout her career she has championed using movement to improve quality of life. She focuses on helping people overcome pain, improving lifestyle and activities, restoring movement efficiency and performance, and mitigating the risk of injury.

During her career she has explored many movement practices and built simple, effective and science backed strategies to restore and maintain healthy movement. Her flagship holisitic programme The Healthy Movement Programme is the culmination of her life's work. This is an opporunity to be mentored by Sarah to build robust movement for a lifetime of activity.

Find out more here

Sarah’s consultancy within elite sport has allowed her to work closely with top athletes. Including English Premier League teams, integrating movement analysis and retraining into their broader player management.

 Movement Methods

Sarah has always loved the exploration of the mind-body connection and practical application of movement methods. She has certifications in teaching the movement methods of Pilates, Gyrotonic®, Gyrokinesis®, Garuda, Yoga and Organics.

These movement methods have been key in building experience, expertise, and skill in movement coaching. Sarah has learnt as much from working with her clients as her clients have learnt working with her. She treats the relationship as a two-way collaboration which facilitates better results. 

Her extensive experience has helped her develop an exacting eye which assists her in developing the science and art of movement coaching.

Research Activities

With over 30 peer-reviewed publications, Sarah's work contributes to the body of work movement quality and healthy movement.

Sarah's research journey began 1995 with her Masters at University College London.  In 2021 she was awared a Doctor of Philosophy from The University of Southampton.

Sarah continues her association with  the University of Southampton Visiting Academic at and collaborator with the Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis Versus Arthritis.

Education and Technological Innovations

Sarah has helped to integrate practical and academic knowledge to enable movement practitioners to create a structured framework to improve the health of movement.

Sarah is currently the Director of Clinical Education at Comera Movement Science, home of  Kinetic Control, The Performance Matrix (TPM) and Movement Science Practitioner.  Comera Movement Science Ltd (CMS), incorporated as Kinetic Control Ltd in 1995, has been route for teaching this practice to date. Work has included the development and delivery of education and consultancy, technology systems and resources (e.g. The Performance Matrix, exercise catalogues).

Her vision is to enable movement professionals, in both the health and wellness sectors, to empower every individual they work with to improve and maintain the health of their movement.


University of Southampton
Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences
School of Health Sciences

The Health of Movement
Recognising Movement Choices in Individuals for Long-Term Health 

Sarah's PhD showcases how 25 years of clinical experience, research activities, education and technological innovations and application of movement methods, have shaped the concept set out in this thesis, which is: evaluating movement quality, specifically movement coordination strategies (MCS), and restoring loss movement choices (LMC), improves an individuals’ coordination variability, affords a more robust movement system and ultimately improves the health of movement.

The aim of this thesis has been to detail the concept that assessing and retraining MCS may improve the health of movement. The presentation of theoretical concepts and research provides evidence for proof of concept and the validity and reliability of assessment procedures.

Sarah's PHD Thesis



Sarah Mottram 

Changes in movement quality, specifically how people coordinate movement, have been identified in people with pain, history of pain and linked to risk of injury, changes in performance and quality of life. The health of movement is a balance between how an individual uses their body to engage with life and an ability to display choices in movement coordination strategies (MCS). The aim of this thesis is to explore the concept that assessing and retraining MCS improves the health of movement. Five core publications are included: two theoretical papers detailing the concept for assessing and retraining MCS; one reliability study establishing robustness of an assessment tool; a case report demonstrating validity and proof-of-concept of assessment and retaining of MCS; and a morphological study of the serratus anterior muscle illustrating knowledge of anatomical architecture can shape retraining strategies.

The commentary includes the following topics: i) theoretical concept for assessing and restoring the health of movement (Chapter 2); ii) aspects of anatomy and neurophysiological function to support methods of assessment and retraining (Chapter 3); iii) assessment of loss of movement choices (LMC) using cognitive movement control tests to inform retraining (Chapter 4); iv) cognitive movement retraining/movement coaching, a person-centred clinical reasoning framework to design individual tailored programmes to restore LMC (Chapter 5); v) General discussion - significance, implementation and impact, illustrated over 25 years (Chapter 6).

Results have demonstrated:

  1. good inter-rater and excellent intra-rater reliability for the assessment tool;
  2. testing for LMC can inform retraining and cognitive movement retraining can change biomechanical and neurophysiological measures; 
  3. novel findings of morphologically distinct subdivisions of serratus anterior.

This thesis recommends the assessment of MCS to guide retraining to improve the health of movement. Theoretical concepts presented and research conducted have provided evidence for proof-of-concept and validity and reliability of assessment procedures.

Infographic: the path of restroing movement choices in individuals ror long-term health (Mottram 2021)

Noteable Quotes from Sarah's PhD

Championing The Health Of Movement Across Countries, Cultures And Lifespans

'Individuals, health and wellness professionals, politicians and change makers value movement more now than ever. Transitioning from prescriptive exercise to a more holistic approach to the health of movement is needed. Embracing individuals’ narratives, will enable them to steer their life course by giving them the best options to move. There has never been a more important time in global history for championing the health of movement across countries, cultures and lifespans'. (Mottram 2021).

Will you commit to the ‘Health of Movement’ movement?

'There has never been a more important time in global history for championing the health of movement across countries, cultures and lifespans. The current health, social and economic state, has made individuals, health and wellness professionals, politicians and change makers value movement more than ever. Now is the time to transition to a more holistic approach to the health of movement and embrace individuals’ narratives to enable them to steer their life course by giving them the best options to move. Identifying and changing LMC offers both practitioners and individuals the power to transform the health of movement. Addressing the dynamic state of the health of movement to change how people engage with life, is for all, whether they are 8 or 98 years old, from those with a sedentary lifestyle, the active and wellness minded to elite athletes'. (Mottram 2021)




Mottram, S. & Blandford, L. 2020. Assessment of movement coordination strategies to inform health of movement and guide retraining interventions. Musculoskelet Sci Pract, 45, 102100, 10.1016/j.msksp.2019.102100.

Mottram, S., Warner, M., Booysen, N., Bahain-Steenman, K. & Stokes, M. 2019. Retraining in a Female Elite Rower with Persistent Symptoms Post-Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome: A Proof-of-Concept Case Report. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., 4, 10.3390/jfmk4020024.

Booysen, N., Wilson, D., Lewis, C. L., Warner, M. B., Gimpel, M., Mottram, S. L., Comerford, M. C. & M.J., S. 2019. Assessing movement quality using the hip and lower limb movement screen: development, reliability and potential applications. Journal of Musculoskeletal Research, 22, 10.1142/S0218957719500088.

Dingenen, B., Blandford, L., Comerford, M., Staes, F. & Mottram, S. 2018. The assessment of movement health in clinical practice: A multidimensional perspective. Phys Ther Sport, 32, 282-292, 10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.04.008.

Warner, M. B., Wilson, D., Heller, M. O., Wood, D., Worsley, P., Mottram, S., Webborn, N., Veeger, D. & Batt, M. 2018. Scapular kinematics in professional wheelchair tennis players. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 53, 7-13, 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2018.01.022.

Webb, A. L., O'Sullivan, E., Stokes, M. & Mottram, S. 2018. A novel cadaveric study of the morphometry of the serratus anterior muscle: one part, two parts, three parts, four? Anat Sci Int, 93, 98-107, 10.1007/s12565-016-0379-1.

Webb, N., Rowsome, K., Ewings, S., Comerford, M., Stokes, M. & S, M. 2018. A ‘Movement Screening Test’ of Functional Control Ability in Female Recreation Golfers and Non-Golfers over the Age of 80 Years: A Reliability Study. Journal Functional Morphology Kinesiology, 3, 10.3390/jfmk3040054.

Rowsome K, Comerford M, Mottram S, Samuel D & M, S. 2016. Movement control testing of older people in community settings: description of a screening tool and intra-rater reliability. Working Papers in the Health Sciences, 1, 1-12,

Mischiati, C. R., Comerford, M., Gosford, E., Swart, J., Ewings, S., Botha, N., Stokes, M. & Mottram, S. L. 2015. Intra and inter-rater reliability of screening for movement impairments: movement control tests from the foundation matrix. J Sports Sci Med, 14, 427-40,

Warner, M. B., Whatling, G., Worsley, P. R., Mottram, S., Chappell, P. H., Holt, C. A. & Stokes, M. J. 2015. Objective classification of scapular kinematics in participants with movement faults of the scapula on clinical assessment. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin, 18, 782-9, 10.1080/10255842.2013.847093.

Botha, N., Warner, M., Gimpel, M., Mottram, S., Comerford, M. & Stokes, M. 2014. Movement patterns during a Small Knee Bend test in Academy Footballers with Femoroacteabular impingement (FAI). Working Papers in Health Sciences 1, 1-5,

Struyf, F., Nijs, J.; Mottram, S., Roussel, N., Cools, A., Meeusen, R. 2014. Clinical assessment of the scapula: a review of the literature. Br J Sports Med, 48, 883-890.

Struyf, F., Nijs, J., Meeus, M., Roussel, N. A., Mottram, S., Truijen, S. & Meeusen, R. 2014. Does scapular positioning predict shoulder pain in recreational overhead athletes? Int J Sports Med, 35, 75-82, 10.1055/s-0033-1343409.

Roussel, N., De Kooning, M., Schütt, A., Mottram, S., Truijen, S., Nijs, J., Daenen, L. 2013. Motor control and low back pain in dancers. Int J Sports Med, 34, 138-143.

Struyf, F., Nijs, J., Mollekens, S., Jeurissen, I., Truijen, S., Mottram, S. & Meeusen, R. 2013. Scapular-focused treatment in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Rheumatol, 32, 73-85, 10.1007/s10067-012-2093-2.

Worsley, P., Warner, M., Mottram, S., Gadola, S., Veeger, H. E., Hermens, H., Morrissey, D., Little, P., Cooper, C., Carr, A. & Stokes, M. 2013. Motor control retraining exercises for shoulder impingement: effects on function, muscle activation, and biomechanics in young adults. J Shoulder Elbow Surg, 22, e11-9, 10.1016/j.jse.2012.06.010.

Helgadottir, H., Kristjansson, E., Mottram, S., Karduna, A. & Jonsson, H., Jr. 2011. Altered alignment of the shoulder girdle and cervical spine in patients with insidious onset neck pain and whiplash-associated disorder. J Appl Biomech, 27, 181-91,

Struyf, F., Nijs, J., Baeyens, J. P., Mottram, S. & Meeusen, R. 2011. Scapular positioning and movement in unimpaired shoulders, shoulder impingement syndrome, and glenohumeral instability. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 21, 352-8, 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01274.x.

Struyf, F., Nijs, J., De Graeve, J., Mottram, S. & Meeusen, R. 2011. Scapular positioning in overhead athletes with and without shoulder pain: a case-control study. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 21, 809-18, 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01115.x.

Struyf, F., Nijs, J., Horsten, S., Mottram, S., Truijen, S. & Meeusen, R. 2011. Scapular positioning and motor control in children and adults: a laboratory study using clinical measures. Man Ther, 16, 155-60, 10.1016/j.math.2010.09.002.

Helgadottir, H., Kristjansson, E., Mottram, S., Karduna, A. R. & Jonsson, H., Jr. 2010. Altered scapular orientation during arm elevation in patients with insidious onset neck pain and whiplash-associated disorder. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 40, 784-91, 10.2519/jospt.2010.3405.

Mottram, S. L., Woledge, R. C. & Morrissey, D. 2009. Motion analysis study of a scapular orientation exercise and subjects' ability to learn the exercise. Man.Ther., 14, 13-18,

Roussel, N. A., Nijs, J., Mottram, S., Van, M. A., Truijen, S. & Stassijns, G. 2009. Altered lumbopelvic movement control but not generalized joint hypermobility is associated with increased injury in dancers. A prospective study. Man.Ther., 14, 630-5, 10.1016/j.math.2008.12.004

Roussel, N., Nijs, J., Truijen, S., Vervecken, L., Mottram, S. & Stassijns, G. 2009. Altered breathing patterns during lumbopelvic motor control tests in chronic low back pain: a case-control study Eur Spine  J 18, 1066-73

Struyf, F., Nijs, J., De Coninck, K., Giunta, M., Mottram, S. & Meeusen, R. 2009. Clinical assessment of scapular positioning in musicians: an intertester reliability study. J Athl Train, 44, 519-26, 10.4085/1062-6050-44.5.519.

Mottram, S. & Comerford, M. 2008. A new perspective on risk assessment. Phys Ther Sport, 9, 40-51, 10.1016/j.ptsp.2007.11.003.

Nijs, J.; Roussel, N., Struyf, F., Mottram, S., Meeusen, R. 2007. Clinical assessment of scapular positioning in patients with shoulder pain: state of the art. J.Manipulative Physiol Ther. 30, 69-75.

Comerford, M. J. & Mottram, S. L. 2001. Functional stability re-training: principles and strategies for managing mechanical dysfunction. Man Ther, 6, 3-14, 10.1054/math.2000.0389.

Comerford, M. J. & Mottram, S. L. 2001. Movement and stability dysfunction-contemporary developments. Man Ther, 6, 15-26, 10.1054/math.2000.0388.

Mottram, S. L. 1997. Dynamic stability of the scapula. Man Ther, 2, 123-131, 10.1054/math.1997.0292.

Textbook: Comerford M & Mottram S. Kinetic Control, The Management of Uncontrolled Movement. Australia: Churchill Livingstone 2012.